The most common mechanisms of HPV infection: how is human papillomavirus transmitted?

Papillomavirus (PVI) infection - belongs to the group of anthroponotic pathogens (transmitted exclusively from person to person).

The path of infection is determined by several options for the development of events: through sexual contact, through blood, by domestic means (with a latent form of the disease - "warty").

how human papillomavirus is transmitted

Methods of infection

As mentioned above, there are only three main ways of infection: through sexual contact, through blood, with household means.

By penetrating through the protective barrier of the skin, mucous membranes and circulatory system, HPV has an extremely negative impact on the patient's health.

Typically, a person experiences:

  1. Constant weakness.
  2. Feeling of nausea, heaviness in the hypochondrium.
  3. Pain syndrome.
  4. Problems with the urinary and reproductive system (difficulty with urination, the appearance of acute paroxysmal pain in the perineum).
  5. Burning sensation in the groin.
  6. Dizziness against the background of a frequent increase in body temperature.
  7. A general decrease in the protective functions of the body (frequent colds, a long recovery period after an illness).
  8. Itching of the skin, which is accompanied by the appearance of papilloma.

To recognize the presence of a viral infection and consult a doctor in time, it is necessary to take into account the prerequisites for the occurrence of this disease.

Prerequisites for infection

The most common prerequisites for HPV to occur include:

  1. Weakened immunity.
  2. The presence of other chronic diseases that undermine the body's resistance to all kinds of attacks from the outside.
  3. These are hepatitis, human immunodeficiency (HIV), cardiovascular diseases, genetic abnormalities, rare inherited forms of the disease.
  4. Promiscuous sexual relations.
  5. Unprotected sexual contact.
  6. Infection from a loved one in everyday life: when using dishes, bedding, towels, with a kiss, hugs.
  7. Use of public places of culture and recreation.
  8. Visiting the beauty salons.
  9. Sharing personal items: combs, manicure accessories.


Timely vaccination will protect against more aggressive types of the virus.

Routes of transmission

The papilloma virus is transmitted through body contact, transplacental (transplanted from infected surfaces), with the help of cerebrospinal fluid (blood, saliva, sweat).

Therefore, if there is a sick person in the family, it is necessary to constantly treat all surfaces with a special antiseptic, follow strict rules on personal contacts and monitor the condition of the skin (microcracks can also become the initial area of damage).

Is it possible to contract HPV through family contact?

Papillomavirus infection is perfectly transmitted through common objects and with saliva. This should not be forgotten if there is a sick person in the house.

Distribution mechanism:

  1. Kissing, hugging. With saliva and sweat, PVI passes from one person to another. This is possible because the virus moves freely through the mucous membranes, is present in saliva and cerebrospinal fluid.
  2. When using personal hygiene items belonging to the patient.
  3. When they shake hands. Skin microtraumas can be excellent conductors of infection.
  4. When using shared tools.
  5. When transferring things, objects from an infected person to a healthy person (this type of infection is very resistant to the influence of environmental factors).

Can HPV be sexually transmitted?

Since the mucous membranes, the skin and their derivatives (secretions, blood vessels, saliva) are carriers of genetic material, it is possible to become infected with the human papillomavirus through sexual contact; as well as when using public baths, saunas.

Transmission mechanism:

  1. Directly during sexual contact (this is especially true for oral and anal sex).
  2. When using shared showers, toilets, saunas. Without proper antiseptic and antibacterial treatment, such places are breeding grounds for all kinds of infections.
  3. When using a partner's underwear and clothes (especially for women who like to wear men's shirts, t-shirts, shorts, shorts for the family).

Is the virus transmitted from mother to child?

The transmission of the infection from mother to child is called the "vertical transplant route". This type of papillomavirus transmission is one of the most dangerous, as it damages the child's body and intellect.

After undergoing HPV, especially in the early stages (1 trimester), doctors insist on an abortion for medical reasons.


Self-infection is possible only if untreated hygiene items are used. For example: razors, toothbrushes, nail scissors and the like.

With this form of transmission of the papilloma virus, the patient does not feel uncomfortable for a long time and leads a normal life. And when the first symptoms of the disease appear (which are very similar to banal overwork), he ignores them without going to the doctor.

Which types of HPV are the most dangerous?

The most dangerous types of human papilloma virus (HPV) include types 16 and 18. They have strains that cause malignant neoplasms - cancerous tumors that, as they grow, can metastasize.

The most common manifestation of exposure to a strain of the virus is the onset of diseases such as: cervical cancer, infertility, pulmonary and bronchial changes, acute immunoglobulin deficiency.

Note! Cervical cancer can only occur due to the more aggressive form of the virus. Most papillomas are not dangerous.


To detect the presence of the human papilloma virus (HPV) in the body, some of the more complex hardware techniques are helpful.

  • colposcopy. A colposcope is a medical device that allows you to accurately determine changes in the mucous membranes of the genitourinary system: to detect inflammation, damage and spread of viruses, fungal bacteria. Its use to determine the presence of HPV in the body is used to finally confirm the diagnosis. This device is able to: with a magnification of 30 times, find the source of the inflammation, determine its nature, perform a curettage directly in the affected area.
  • PCR examination. This laboratory method is a differential diagnosis of this type of disease. PCR makes it difficult to determine the type of virus, but also the route of infection. For this analysis it is necessary to sample the biomaterial: blood, urine, sperm.
  • Try digene. A modern diagnostic technique based on the separation of a small area of the affected skin for study. Using this approach, medical specialists can tell 100% exactly what type of virus is present in the body, what its concentration is, whether it is in reactive form, to which antiviral drugs there is sensitivity.
  • Cytology. It is a study of the problem at the cellular level. For this, the upper layer of the papilloma is removed, a separate section of the mucous membrane is taken. With the help of a heavy-duty microscope and a basic set of reagents, laboratory assistants study the behavior of the virus, its effect on the body (make a prediction), the degree of damage to the internal systems of the body.
  • Histological diagnosis. The aim of this technique is to study morphological changes in the tissues. The material for the study is taken using a biopsy.


Treatment of the human papilloma virus involves strict observance of sexual abstinence, the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, immunomodulatory drugs, vitamin complexes and drugs to reduce the effect of the virus on the body.

You should also limit healthy people's access to personal belongings, hygiene products, dishes, and bedding. When malignant neoplasms caused by a virus appear, corrective treatment or surgery with a long rehabilitation period is performed.

Ways to prevent the disease

The main ways to prevent HPV are:

  • Compliance with the rules of sanitary and domestic supply of the living space.
  • The use of contraceptives.
  • Checks on the state of one's health by specialized specialists.
  • The use of personal hygiene products strictly for the intended purpose, without transferring them to third parties.
  • No trips to places with increased risk of infection: baths, saunas, swimming pools, water parks, massages and beauty salons.
  • Protection of the skin from interaction with a large number of external factors.
  • Protect your health by isolating from those who are ill with any infectious and viral diseases, skin diseases.

It is simply impossible to cope with a complex viral infection on your own. Medical supervision, the timely appeal for qualified help to a large group of specialists will be the first and most serious step to address the existing problem.

If such a problem occurs, one of the family members should undergo a routine diagnosis immediately and follow all the doctor's instructions to avoid the spread of the virus. Also, we must not forget about the precautions that will help prevent infection.